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Effects of Stalking
The impact of stalking may vary according to the victim’s characteristics, past experience, current circumstances, and what they know, or don’t know, about the stalker. How others respond to the victim’s situation, including how the stalking is managed by authorities, can influence the overall effect that the stalking episode has on the victim.
Despite the complexities that may vary an individual’s experience and reaction to being stalked, research has demonstrated common patterns of response. Although female victims usually report greater levels of fear, studies have found that males subjected to stalking experience similar symptoms to those reported by their female counterparts.
Although not exhaustive, the following are some of the more common effects that victims of stalking experience:
- Denial, confusion, self-doubt, questioning if what is happening is unreasonable, wondering if they are over-reacting
- Guilt, embarrassment, self-blame
- Apprehension, fear, terror of being alone or that they, others or pets will be harmed
- Feeling isolated and helpless to stop the harassment
- Depression (all symptoms related to depression)
- Anxiety, panic attacks, agoraphobia (frightened to leave the house, never feeling safe)
- Difficulty concentrating, attending and remembering things Inability to sleep – nightmares, ruminating
- Irritability, anger, homicidal thoughts
- Emotional numbing
- Symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress disorder e.g. hypervigilance (always on the lookout), flashbacks of frightening incidents, easily startled
- Insecurity and inability to trust others, problems with intimacy
- Personality changes due to becoming more suspicious, introverted or aggressive
- Self-medication alcohol/ drugs or using prescribed medications
- Suicide thoughts and/or suicide attempts
- Fatigue from difficulty sleeping, being constantly on guard, symptoms of depression
- Effects of chronic stress including headaches, hypertension
- Gastrointestinal problems - Fluctuations in weight due to not eating or comfort eating
- Development or exacerbation of pre-existing conditions e.g. asthma, gastric ulcers and psoriasis
- Shortness of breath Impact on health of increased use of alcohol, cigarettes or drugs
- Sexual dysfunction
- Physical injury due to not concentrating or being under the influence of substances
- Heart palpitations and sweating
Work and school
- Deteriorating school/work performance
- Increased sick leave
- Leaving job or being fired
- Changing career
- Dropping out of school – poorer education and career opportunities
- Insecurity and inability to trust others impacting on current and future relationships and friendships
- Problems with physical and emotional intimacy
- Avoidance of usual activities e.g., going to the gym, going out
- Isolation through trying to protect others , feeling misunderstood or psychological symptoms
- Others withdrawing from the victim because they don’t believe the victim, they are unable to cope with the victim’s mental state or as a direct consequence of third-party victimisation
- Victim moving to a new area, changing their phone number, name or even their appearance
- Loss of wages due to sick leave, leaving job or changing career
- Costs incurred through legal fees. Expense of increasing home and personal security
- Cost involved in repairing property damage. Seeking psychological counselling and medical treatment
- Cost involved in breaking leases on rented properties
- Expense of relocation
Bjerregaard, B. (2000). "An empirical study of stalking victimization".Violence and Victims, 15(4)91-111.
Basile, K.C., Arias, I., Desai, S., & Thompson, M.P. (2004). "The differential association of intimate partner physical, sexual, psychological and stalking violence and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a nationally representative sample of women". Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(5), 413-421.
Fisher, B.S., Cullen, T.F., & Turner, M.G. (2006). Being pursued: Stalking victimization in a national study of college women. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington D.C.
Fisher, B.S., John, J.S., Cullen, F.T., & Turner, M.G. (2000). The Sexual victimization of college women.U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington D.C.
Frieze, I.H., & Keith, D.E. (2000a). "Introduction to stalking and obsessive behaviors in everyday life: Assessment of victims and perpetrators. Violence and Victims, 15(1),3-5
Frieze, I.H., & Keith, D.E. (2000b). "Stalking and obsessive behaviors in everyday life: Assessment of victims and perpetrators- Part II".Violence and Victims,15(4).
Kamphuis, J.H., & Emmelkamp, P.M.G. (2001). "Traumatic distress among support-seeking female victims of stalking". Am J Psychiatry, 158, 795-798.
Karjane, H.M., Fisher, B.S., & Cullen, F.T. (2001). Campus sexual assault: How America's institutions of higher education respond. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington D.C.
Logan, T.K., Leukefeld, C., & Walker, B. (2000). "Stalking as a variant of intimate violence implications from a young adult sample".Violence and Victims, 15(4), 91-111.
Walby, S. & Allen, J. (2004). Domestic violence, sexual assault and stalking: Findings from the British Crime Survey. Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate.